Thursday, September 30, 2004

Another Derbyshire Maths Problem

John Derbyshire has another cute end-of-the-month maths puzzle. Here's how he puts it:

To answer these questions we need to know how to calculate the leading (leftmost) digits of the powers of two. We could just start off by raising two to succesively higher powers: 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 2048, 4096, 8192, 16384, 32768, 65536, 131071,... but this won't tell us anything about the distribution of that leading digit in general. To get a direct formula for the leading digit we will need to use logarithms.

First let's review a few properties of logarithms (or logs). To start, here's the definition. The logarithm to base b of x is that number that when you raise b to it, you get x. It is written log_{b} *x*. A couple of examples: log_{8} 512 = 3, because 8^{3} = 512. Similarly, log_{3.66} 12.8901 = 1.97035 beacuse 3.66^{1.97035} = 12.8901. And *b*^{logb x} = *x*.

A second important property is that addition of logs is like multiplication. log (x y) = log x + log y. So, log_{2} 32 = 5 = log_{2} 4 + log_{2} 8 = 2 + 3.

Thirdly, raising a number to a power is like multiplying a log by a constant. For example, log_{b} x^{y} = y log_{b} x.

OK, so now we can derive our formula for the leading digit of 2^{x}. If we take log_{10} 2^{x}, we get x log_{10} 2 (in other words, 10^{x log10 2} = 2^{x}). This will be some decimal number, like 4.21442 (log_{10} 16384). We can split this into two pieces, by our second property: the integer part and the fractional part. The integer part represents a power of ten, in our example 10^{4} = 10,000. The fractional part represents the amount by which you have to multiply this power of ten to get our original number back, in this case 10^{0.21442} = 1.6384. And therein lies our answer. Let's introduce two new functions, called *floor* and *frac*. The 'floor' of x is the largest integer that is smaller than x. So floor(3.2) is 3, floor(-4.6) is -5. The 'frac' function just takes the fractional part of a number: frac(4.386743) = 0.386743.

If we raise 10 to the power frac(x log_{10} 2), we get some number. If we then take the floor of this number, we get the leading digit of 2^{x}. So our final function is floor(10^{frac(x log10 2)}).

The frac function returns a value between 0 and 1. But does frac(x log_{10} 2) take on all values between 0 and 1? Yes. The reason for this is highly theoretical and depends on a thing called Weyl's criterion. Without going into too much detail, Weyl's criterion says that frac(x y) (x is an integer) takes on all values between 0 and 1 as x gets bigger if y is irrational (the technical term is frac(x y) is equidistributed and dense in [0,1]). Another property of logarithms is that log_{b} a is irrational if a and b are integers and one of them has a prime factor that the other does not. So log_{10} 2 is irrational. If we raise 10 to the power of the frac function as x gets bigger and bigger, we eventually get a smooth curve that varies between 1 and 10. Applying the floor function turns it into a 'staircase', with risers of height 1 and treads of varying widths. Each tread is a power of two with the corresponding lead digit. The widths decrease as we go up. As they get narrower, the chance that a random power of x will have that leading digit goes down. So we have the answer to Derb's first question: for sufficiently large N, powers of two start with a three more often than a four. How much more often? About 1.29 times more often, but that will have to wait for an update.

UPDATE: What are the probabilities of a power of two having a given leading digit?. In other words, what are the widths of the treads in the staircase function we obtained by applying floor to 10^{x}? The function first takes a step up when 10^{x} = 2, or x = log_{10} 2. That value is approximately 0.30103. So roughly 30% of powers of two have leading digit 1. The next step has width log_{10} 3 - log_{10} 2 = log_{10} 3/2 ~ 0.1761, and so on. The ratio of the third step to the fourth step (in Derb's question, the ratio of U(N) to V(N)) is log_{10} 4/3 divided by log_{10} 5/4 ~ 1.2892.

If we actually calculate the leading digits, for the first 100,000 powers of two the number of results with leading digit 3 and 4 are 12492 and 9692 respectively, which is a ratio of 1.2889, pretty close to the theoretical value. As we take more and more powers, the result will get even closer (although working with the results gets hard: 2^{1000000} has around 300,000 digits).

John Derbyshire has another cute end-of-the-month maths puzzle. Here's how he puts it:

Consider the powers of two: 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128... Their right-most digits follow a simple repetitive pattern: 2, 4, 8, 6, 2, 4, 8, 6, 2, 4, 8, 6... What about their left-most digits, though? Here are the first 40-odd [actually, it's the first 149 -Ed.]. (Read right to left, line by line. I've just jammed the digits together, leaving out the courtesy commas, to save space.)

24813612512481361251248136125

124813612512481371251249137125

124913712512491371361249137136

124913713612512481361251248136

125124813612512481361251248137...

There is a pattern there, but it keeps breaking down. When you get up into really big powers of 2, in fact, it breaks down altogether. For the ten powers of 2 from the 30th to the 39th, for instance, we have lead digits 1, 2, 4, 8, 1, 3, 6, 1, 2, 5. For the ten powers from the billionth to the 1,000,000,009th, by contrast, we have lead digits 4, 9, 1, 3, 7, 1, 2, 5, 1, 2. Every digit (except, of course, zero) shows up, though.

I am going to refer to this infinite sequence of digits as "the sequence." Now I am going to ask the following two questions: In the first N digits of the sequence, how many occurrences of 3 shall I find? And how many occurrences of 4?

Call the first number U(N), the second V(N). The first few values of U(N) and V(N), for N from 1 to 15, look like this, as you can easily verify:

U(N) = 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2,...

V(N) = 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2,...

Show that for sufficiently large N, U(N) will always be bigger than V(N). Find the limit of the ratio U(N) to V(N) as N tends to infinity.

To answer these questions we need to know how to calculate the leading (leftmost) digits of the powers of two. We could just start off by raising two to succesively higher powers: 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 2048, 4096, 8192, 16384, 32768, 65536, 131071,... but this won't tell us anything about the distribution of that leading digit in general. To get a direct formula for the leading digit we will need to use logarithms.

First let's review a few properties of logarithms (or logs). To start, here's the definition. The logarithm to base b of x is that number that when you raise b to it, you get x. It is written log

A second important property is that addition of logs is like multiplication. log (x y) = log x + log y. So, log

Thirdly, raising a number to a power is like multiplying a log by a constant. For example, log

OK, so now we can derive our formula for the leading digit of 2

If we raise 10 to the power frac(x log

The frac function returns a value between 0 and 1. But does frac(x log

UPDATE: What are the probabilities of a power of two having a given leading digit?. In other words, what are the widths of the treads in the staircase function we obtained by applying floor to 10

If we actually calculate the leading digits, for the first 100,000 powers of two the number of results with leading digit 3 and 4 are 12492 and 9692 respectively, which is a ratio of 1.2889, pretty close to the theoretical value. As we take more and more powers, the result will get even closer (although working with the results gets hard: 2

Sunday, September 26, 2004

Sunday Recipe

Nothing I can add on the Rathergate issue, so instead here's Sunday's recipe for basic meatballs:

Mix all the ingredients, except the vegetable oil, in a bowl or food processor. Roll into 3 cm balls (this quantity will make about six). Roll them in flour and leave them to sit in a refrigerator for 30 mins or so to firm. Heat 3 tbsp of vegetable oil (sunflower is best) in a heavy skillet over high heat. Place the floured meatballs in the pan, reduce the heat to medium and fry them for 9–10 minutes (in batches if necessary — don't overload the pan), turning frequently so that they are browned on all sides.

Serve them with buttered fettucini or a tomato sauce. If you want to make them a bit more tangy (a.k.a 'Mama mia, that's a spicy meatball!'). substitute half the black pepper for cayenne and add two tbsp of Tabasco habañero sauce. Then WASH YOUR HANDS!

This quantity's enough for one person; scale accordingly.

Nothing I can add on the Rathergate issue, so instead here's Sunday's recipe for basic meatballs:

200g finely ground minced beef

1/2 egg, beaten

1 tsp onion powder

1 tsp garlic powder

1/4 cup breadcrumbs

1/4 tsp dried oregano

1 tsp Worcester sauce

1/2 tsp Bovril or other beef extract

1/2 tsp salt

1 tsp pepper

3 tbsp vegetable oil

Mix all the ingredients, except the vegetable oil, in a bowl or food processor. Roll into 3 cm balls (this quantity will make about six). Roll them in flour and leave them to sit in a refrigerator for 30 mins or so to firm. Heat 3 tbsp of vegetable oil (sunflower is best) in a heavy skillet over high heat. Place the floured meatballs in the pan, reduce the heat to medium and fry them for 9–10 minutes (in batches if necessary — don't overload the pan), turning frequently so that they are browned on all sides.

Serve them with buttered fettucini or a tomato sauce. If you want to make them a bit more tangy (a.k.a 'Mama mia, that's a spicy meatball!'). substitute half the black pepper for cayenne and add two tbsp of Tabasco habañero sauce. Then WASH YOUR HANDS!

This quantity's enough for one person; scale accordingly.

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